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  • 数控加工技术的意义
  • 本站编辑:杭州以铁精密机械有限公司发布日期:2019-05-08 07:02 浏览次数:

数控机床一开始就选定具有复杂型面的飞机零件作为加工对象,解决普通的加工方法难以解决的关键。数控加工的一大特点是用穿孔带(或磁带)控制机床进行自动加工。由于飞机、火箭和发动机零件各有不同的特点:飞机和火箭的零、构件尺寸大、型面复杂;发动机零、构件尺寸小、精度高。因此飞机、火箭制造部门和发动机制造部门所选用的数控机床有所不同。在飞机和火箭制造中以采用连续控制的大型数控铣床为主,而在发动机制造中既采用连续控制的数控机床,也采用点位控制的数控机床(如数控钻床、数控镗床、加工中心等)。

工序集中

数控机床一般带有可以自动换刀的刀架、刀库,换刀过程由程序控制自动进行,因此,工序比较集中。工序集中带来巨大的经济效益:

⑴减少机床占地面积,节约厂房。

⑵减少或没有中间环节(如半成品的中间检测、暂存搬运等),既省时间又省人力。

自动化

数控机床加工时,不需人工控制刀具,自动化程度高。带来的好处很明显。

⑴对操作工人的要求降低:

一个普通机床的高效工,不是短时间内可以培养的,而一个不需编程的数控工培养时间极短(如数控车工需要一周即可,还会编写简单的加工程序)。并且,数控工在数控机床上加工出的零件比普通工在传统机床上加工的零件精度要高,时间要省。⑵降低了工人的劳动强度:数控工人在加工过程中,大部分时间被排斥在加工过程之外,非常省力。

⑶产品质量稳定:数控机床的加工自动化,免除了普通机床上工人的疲劳、粗心、估计等人为误差,提高了产品的一致性。

⑷加工效率高:数控机床的自动换刀等使加工过程紧凑,提高了劳动生产率。

柔性化高

传统的通用机床,虽然柔性好,但效率低下;而传统的专机,虽然效率很高,但对零件的适应性很差,刚性大,柔性差,很难适应市场经济下的激烈竞争带来的产品频繁改型。只要改变程序,就可以在数控机床上加工新的零件,且又能自动化操作,柔性好,效率高,因此数控机床能很好适应市场竞争。

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At the beginning of CNC machine tools, aircraft parts with complex surfaces were selected as processing objects to solve the key problems that ordinary machining methods are difficult to solve。 A major feature of NC machining is the use of perforated tape(or tape) control machine tools for automatic processing。 Due to the different characteristics of aircraft, rockets and engine parts: zero aircraft and rockets, large components, and complex surfaces; Engine zero, small component size, high precision。 Therefore, the CNC machine tools used by the aircraft, Rocket manufacturing departments and engine manufacturing departments are different。 In aircraft and rocket manufacturing, large-scale CNC milling machines with continuous control are used, while in engine manufacturing, CNC machine tools with continuous control are also used(such as CNC drilling machines, CNC boring machines, and machining centers)。
Process concentration
CNC machine tools are generally equipped with knives and tool libraries that can be automatically changed. The process of changing knives is automatically controlled by the program. Therefore, the process is relatively concentrated. Process concentration brings great economic benefits:
(1) Reduce the area of machine tools and save factories。
(2) The reduction or absence of intermediate links(such as intermediate testing of semi-finished products, temporary storage and handling, etc.) saves both time and manpower.
automation
CNC machine tool processing, no manual control tool, high degree of automation。 The benefits are obvious。
(1) Reduced requirements for operators:
The efficient work of an ordinary machine tool can not be cultivated in a short period of time, and the training time of a CNC worker who does not require programming is extremely short(for example, a CNC driver needs a week, and a simple processing program is also written)。 Moreover, the parts processed by CNC workers on CNC machine tools are more accurate than those processed by ordinary workers on traditional machine tools, and the time must be saved。 (2) Reduced labor intensity of workers: CNC workers in the processing process, most of the time is excluded from the processing process, very labor-saving。
(3) Product quality stability: The automation of NC machine tools avoids the fatigue, carelessness, and human error of ordinary machine tools, and improves product consistency.
(4) High efficiency of machining: The automatic changing knife of CNC machine tool makes the processing process compact and improves labor productivity。
Flexible and high
Traditional universal machine tools, although flexible, but inefficient; Although the efficiency of the traditional special plane is very high, the adaptability to the parts is poor, the rigidity is large, and the flexibility is poor. It is difficult to adapt to the frequent modification of products brought about by fierce competition under the market economy. As long as the program is changed, new parts can be processed on the CNC machine tool, and it can be automated, flexible, and efficient. Therefore, the CNC machine tool can adapt well to market competition.

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